(1) Paper Packaging
Recycling and classifying large amounts of waste paper and paper packaging products in society. Waste paper is an important renewable resource. Developed countries have used the legal situation to recycle waste paper as a national policy. Different basic uses, different countries have different classification criteria, such as the United States to classify waste paper into 11 categories, Hungary will be divided into 5 categories of waste paper, etc., China's waste acquisition station will be a carton (box) as a class, waste newspapers as a class , Waste paper is divided into a category, garbage paper is divided into a category.
This sorting method is primitive, so good use is not available and resources are wasted.
Japan ranks first in the world in the effective use of the abolition technology, and here we introduce the situation in Japan in order to facilitate our learning and learning.
Japanese wastepaper utilization status:
In 1996, the output of paper and paperboard in Japan was 30.1 million tons, and the fiber raw material used in papermaking raw materials was 29.94 million tons, of which 13.84 million tons were pulp, 16.05 million tons were waste paper, and 50,000 tons were other.
The consumption of waste paper exceeds the consumption of pulp for the first time since 1990. In the future, the demand for waste paper consumption will increase year by year. Japan, which uses waste paper as its papermaking raw material, can be said to have established itself above the pulp.
From the results of 96 years, the utilization rate of waste paper was 53.6%, compared with 41.8% of the 80 years of waste paper utilization, and the utilization rate in this 16 years increased by 12%.
In the context of the sharp increase in the utilization of waste paper, energy prices have been rising due to the impact of two oil crises. From the viewpoint of energy conservation and energy saving, the use of waste paper naturally attracts people's attention. In addition, due to the long-term upward trend in the price of wood, in many areas, the shortage of processing factories and the sharp increase in paper waste have made these problems more and more profound. In order to reduce the amount of garbage, active and effective measures have been adopted such as payment assistance for the recovery of waste paper. In particular, the transformation of carton base papers, newspaper papers, and the conversion of paper pulp into retired raw materials is proceeding rapidly. In terms of the utilization rate of waste paper, the utilization rate of paper is 27.2%, and the utilization rate of board papers is 87.8%. It goes without saying that the use of board paper is based on the proportion of paper and board paper. Quite high.
China's current way to recycle waste paper: mainly recyclers recycle waste paper from various channels such as homes, shopping malls, supermarkets, carton factories, and printing plants, and then deliver directly to wholesale companies (or general trading companies). Concentration, sorting and packaging in this paper to the paper mill.
In Japan, mainly based on private business owners, the recycling efficiency is quite high. On the other hand, due to the decrease in the price of waste paper and the cost for recycling and sorting, the recovery of waste paper is limited to a certain extent. Recently, due to the increasing number of cases in which waste paper is directly recovered from regions or subsidies are paid for waste paper recycling, the role of administrative responsibilities is being expanded.
Japan's paper industry has overcome various difficulties through various twists and turns, established the status of making waste paper as the main papermaking raw material, won attention and understanding in the society, adapted to the trend of the times, and made green packaging for environmental protection and development. Out of more contributions.
In 1996, Japanâ€™s recycling of waste paper was as high as 78%, while in China only 23%, and the gap was quite significant.
(2) Plastic packaging
Environmental pollution caused by waste plastic packaging products has been highly valued by governments of all countries, and the industry has also taken various measures and technologies to deal with them. Before the 1980s, the main treatment methods were incineration and landfill, but now it is gradually replaced by other comprehensive utilization methods. At present, it is mainly used for mechanical regeneration, depolymerization, pyrolysis, liquefaction, and gasification.
1 waste polyester (PET) packaging recycling role:
PET is one of the most widely used materials in the packaging field since the 1980s. However, at present, the promotion and use of recycling technology for domestic polyester packaging products is still in its infancy. Domestically, 10,000-ton devices have been used for small-scale industrialization experiments. Domestic experts believe that the use of chemical recovery methods is a promising recycling route. The annual output of polyester bottles in China is more than 5 billion, and a large number of polyester bottles are put into the market. After consumption, the environment will cause great pollution. After recycling, it can save resources and energy. By creating economic benefits, this recycling technology should be vigorously promoted and the corresponding factories established.
Note: The technical content and indicators for the recycling (chemical method) of waste polyester (PET) packaging.
PET can be an important packaging material because of its excellent performance and characteristics on the one hand, and its use value and recovery value are higher than other materials on the other hand. Due to the structural characteristics of polyester, combined with a high melting point (260 degrees) and a melting point close to the decomposition temperature, it is easily degraded by heat, decomposed and discolored, and the physical and mechanical properties are poor, so it is not appropriate to adopt a physical recycling method. The use of chemical recovery methods is a promising prospect. The recycling route.
A. Hydrolysis of p-dicarboxylic acid and ethylene glycol to produce a polyester resin.
B. Direct pyrolysis produces p-dicarboxylic acid, dioctyl ester plasticizer and modified polyester hot-melt adhesive.
C. Light Preparation of glycol esters followed by synthesis of unsaturated polyester resins or polyurethanes.
Practice has proved that: C is an extremely effective recycling method, and its technical core is the use of waste PET selective preparation of modified glycol esters, its focus is:
a) Selection of diol ester modifiers;
b) control of the end point of alcoholysis;
c) Dispersible solvent use and selection.
The diol esters, unsaturated polyester resins or polyurethanes produced by chemical methods are also widely used engineering materials and packaging materials, and the social and economic benefits are extremely significant.
2 Development and application of waste plastic oil technology
At present, both domestic and foreign companies are actively developing this technology, and some have realized that enterprises have gone into production. China is not far behind. This technology is also actively developed and put into small batches. However, regardless of the country developing this project, it must also face technology and economy. Two obstacles, mainly difficult to compete with crude oil prices.
But also need to be purified to free of non-hydrocarbon components (such as halogens and metals). In China, the development of pyrolysis liquefaction technology for waste plastics is very active. It generally becomes a plastic waste oil technology. It uses a high-performance catalyst â€œPlatinum-Zirconium carbideâ€ to pass a certain pressure and temperature to high-density ethylene or polypropylene. Plastics â€œde-agglomerateâ€ and make the hydrocarbons in the plastic particles reconnect to a long chain hydrocarbon compound, liquid petroleum, and produce products that meet national and diesel and gasoline standards.
This technology has the following features:
A. The product market and raw material sources are broad. China's annual packaging reaches 3.6 million tons. If 70% of waste plastics are recovered, 2.52 million tons of plastics can be recovered annually, and 1.76 million tons of gasoline and diesel can be produced.
B. The oil production rate of this technology is over 75%, and the profit rate is about 40%. If the necessary equipment is installed, liquefied gas and carbon black can be recovered, which is more efficient.
C. By changing the catalyst, it is also possible to produce other chemical products that are currently on the market, such as toluene, xylene, and pure benzene.
If one-third of the country's waste plastic is converted into fuel oil, it can add no less than 2 million tons of pure fuel oil to the country, with a profit of 5.6 billion yuan.
3 Waste plastics production of high-strength flame-retardant composite wood plastic technology Development and application of this technology is based on thermoplastic resin as a parent, adding wood cellulose into a variety of chemical additives, high temperature mixing a new composite material. Once the product was introduced, it was popular and achieved a good substitute for wood.
There are many molding methods for the plastic composite material products, such as extrusion, molding, injection, and vacuum molding. The product has the dual properties of wood and plastics, and has a wide range of uses. It is an effective way for waste plastic clubs to use. Can be used for wood processing or wood products companies.
4 polystyrene foam recycling technology.
5 Degradable polystyrene foam lunch boxes, composting and soilless substrates.
6 Use waste plastic to produce coated fertilizer.
(3) metal packaging
Over the past 20 years of reform and opening up, China's packaging industry has developed rapidly. The backwardness of â€œfirst-class products, second-class packaging, and third-class pricesâ€ has been fundamentally changed. These achievements are obvious to all, but we should also clearly understand that in today's global attention to the environment and development, due to the environmental pollution caused by the production process of packaging products, the environmental pollution caused by a large increase in packaging waste has not yet been received by the packaging industry. Pay attention. In the rapid development of the packaging industry, the rational use of resources to save energy, reduce the pollution of packaging products in the process of life, packaging waste training, processing and recycling, etc. failed to take favorable measures, which has become a drag for the healthy development of the packaging industry At the same time, it should also cause widespread concern in society. In the total amount of packaging, it is imperative to quickly increase the proportion of our green packaging. To this end, in the â€œNinth Five-Yearâ€ development plan for the national packaging industry and the 2010 vision, it will develop green packaging, reduce packaging pollution to the environment, protect and improve the ecological environment, and promote the sustainable development of the national economy as the main strategic direction.
(to be continued)
(1) Paper Packaging